Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name after becoming independent within the Commonwealth on September 30 1966. Since then, it has maintained a strong tradition of stable representative democracy, with a consistent record of uninterrupted democratic elections and the best perceived corruption ranking in Africa since at least 1998.
We visited Botswana in 2010 as part of our 20-day G Adventures Cape Town to Victoria Falls trip.
From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. Since then, there has been many revolutions and conflicts with neighboring states.
We visited Egypt in 2012 as part of our 17-day G Adventures Egypt & Jordan, followed by an independent visit to Israel.
Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties. In 1912, after the First Moroccan Crisis and the Agadir Crisis, the Treaty of Fez was signed, dividing Morocco into French and Spanish protectorates. In 1956, after 44 years of French rule, Morocco regained independence from France, and shortly afterward regained most of the territories under Spanish control.
We visited Morocco in 2013 as part of our 8-day G Adventures tour, followed by our independent tour of southern Spain, Portugal and Wales.
In 1878, the Cape of Good Hope, then a British colony, had annexed the port of Walvis Bay and the offshore Penguin Islands. In 1884 the German Empire established rule over most of the territory as a protectorate. These lands became an integral part of the new Union of South Africa at its creation in 1910. Namibia gained independence from South Africa on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence.
We visited Namibia in 2010 as part of our 20-day G Adventures Cape Town to Victoria Falls trip.
South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures, languages, and religions. The government recognizes 11 official languages, which is the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans; English reflects the legacy of British colonialism, and is commonly used in public and commercial life
We visited South Africa in 2010 as part of our 20-day G Adventures Cape Town to Victoria Falls trip.
In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957.
We visited Tunis in 2017 as part of our trip to southern Italy and Sicily.
After visits by European explorers in the 18th century, the region became the British protectorates of Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia towards the end of the 19th century, and later they merged in 1911 to form Northern Rhodesia . On 24 October 1964, Zambia became independent of the United Kingdom.
We visited Zambia in 2010 as part of our 20-day G Adventures Cape Town to Victoria Falls trip.
Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s, and it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980.
We visited Zimbabwe in 2010 as part of our 20-day G Adventures Cape Town to Victoria Falls trip when we walked across the border from Zambia.
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